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Removal of suspended solids below 40 µm is difficult with drum, screen or sand filters due to pore size versus pumping cost limitations. Fixed screens or rotating micro-screens have limited impact below 40 µm. Poor flow capacity leads to high pumping costs and cleaning frequency. Sand filters are hindered by high head loss and frequent maintenance.
UV or ozone disinfection is expensive due to high energy use.
Stripping undesirable gases (e.g., CO2, H2S, N2) consumes energy and requires a large space for the stripping chamber. Gases are frequently released in the building housing the RAS raising heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) costs.
Each issue above requires specialized equipment that:
Increases capital equipment costs
Takes floorspace away from production
Increases operating costs due to energy
consumption and increased maintenance.
Challenges & Limitation with Traditional Systems
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